Bio Bulgaria

Bulgaria is located in Southeast Europe, bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. Its strategic location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia has shaped its history and culture over the centuries.



Bulgaria experiences a diverse climate influenced by its varied topography. The northern regions have a continental climate with cold winters and hot summers, while the southern areas have a Mediterranean climate with mild winters and hot, dry summers. The Black Sea coast enjoys a maritime climate with pleasant temperatures throughout the year.


Bulgaria boasts a rich biodiversity, with diverse habitats ranging from mountains and forests to wetlands and coastal areas. Its fauna includes brown bears, wolves, lynxes, and a variety of bird species. The country is also home to the endangered European bison and the rare Eastern imperial eagle.

Longest Rivers

The longest river in Bulgaria is the Danube, which forms the country’s northern border with Romania. Other major rivers include the Maritsa, Iskar, and Struma, which flow through the country’s interior and play a crucial role in irrigation, transportation, and hydroelectric power generation.

Highest Mountains

Bulgaria is characterized by its mountainous terrain, with the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) running diagonally across the country from west to east. The highest peak is Mount Musala, standing at 2,925 meters (9,596 feet) above sea level in the Rila Mountains.



Bulgaria’s history dates back to ancient times, with evidence of human habitation dating back to the Paleolithic era. The region was inhabited by Thracian tribes, who left behind rich archaeological treasures, including burial mounds, tombs, and gold artifacts.

Roman and Byzantine Rule

Bulgaria was part of the Roman Empire for several centuries, during which it prospered as an important crossroads of trade and commerce. In the 7th century, the Bulgars, a Turkic tribe, established the First Bulgarian Empire, which later adopted Christianity under King Boris I.

Ottoman Dominion

Bulgaria fell under Ottoman rule in the 14th century and remained part of the Ottoman Empire for nearly five centuries. During this time, Bulgaria experienced significant cultural and religious influences, with the Orthodox Christian population subjected to religious persecution and forced conversion to Islam.

Modern Era

Bulgaria regained its independence in 1878 following the Russo-Turkish War, but its borders and political status underwent several changes over the following decades. The country experienced periods of political instability, including two World Wars and a communist regime under Soviet influence. Bulgaria transitioned to democracy in 1989 and joined the European Union in 2007.


Bulgaria has a population of approximately 6.9 million people, with a diverse ethnic makeup that includes Bulgarians, Turks, Roma, and other minority groups. The majority of the population identifies as Orthodox Christian, with Islam being the second largest religion. Bulgarian is the official language, although Turkish and Romani are also spoken by minority communities.

Administrative Divisions

Bulgaria is divided into 28 provinces, each with its own administrative center and local government. These provinces are further subdivided into municipalities and towns, providing a decentralized system of governance.

Administrative Divisions and Population (2022 estimate)

  1. Sofia City – Population: 1,250,000
  2. Plovdiv Province – Population: 680,000
  3. Varna Province – Population: 475,000
  4. Burgas Province – Population: 425,000
  5. Stara Zagora Province – Population: 370,000
  6. Pleven Province – Population: 315,000
  7. Ruse Province – Population: 315,000
  8. Blagoevgrad Province – Population: 300,000
  9. Veliko Tarnovo Province – Population: 280,000
  10. Sliven Province – Population: 260,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Sofia
  2. Plovdiv
  3. Varna
  4. Burgas
  5. Ruse
  6. Stara Zagora
  7. Pleven
  8. Sliven
  9. Dobrich
  10. Shumen

Education Systems

Education in Bulgaria is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 16. The country has a well-developed education system that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Bulgaria has several prestigious universities, including Sofia University and Plovdiv University, offering a wide range of academic programs and research opportunities.



Bulgaria has several international airports, with Sofia Airport being the busiest and largest. Other major airports include Varna Airport, Burgas Airport, and Plovdiv Airport. These airports serve as important hubs for domestic and international air travel.


Bulgaria has an extensive railway network operated by the Bulgarian State Railways (BDZ), connecting major cities and towns across the country. The total length of railway tracks in Bulgaria is approximately 4,000 kilometers (2,485 miles), with modernized trains providing passenger and freight services.


Bulgaria has a well-developed network of highways and roads, including the Trakia Motorway and Hemus Motorway, which connect major cities and regions. The total length of highways in Bulgaria is over 19,000 kilometers (11,800 miles), facilitating transportation and commerce.


Bulgaria has two major ports on the Black Sea coast: Varna and Burgas. These ports serve as important gateways for maritime trade and transportation, handling cargo shipments, passenger ferries, and cruise liners.

Country Facts

  • Population: 6.9 million
  • Capital: Sofia
  • Language: Bulgarian
  • Religion: Orthodox Christianity
  • Race: Bulgarian, Turkish, Roma, others
  • Currency: Bulgarian Lev (BGN)
  • ISO Country Code: BG
  • International Calling Code: +359
  • Top-level Domain: .bg