What does MIPS stand for?

According to AbbreviationFinder, MIPS is a way of measuring the power of the processors. However, this measure is only useful for comparing processors with the same instruction set and using benchmarks that were compiled by the same compiler and with the same level of optimization. This is because the same task may need a number of different instructions if the instruction sets are also different; and for similar reasons in the other two situations described. In comparisons, peak values ​​are usually represented, so the measurement is not entirely realistic. The way the memory used by the processor works is also a key factor in the power of a processor, something that is not usually considered in MIPS calculations. Because of these problems, researchers have created standardized tests such as SpecInt to measure actual performance, and MIPS has fallen out of use.

MIPS processors

Also known as MIPS (processor) is a popular family of architectural microprocessors ]] RISC widely used in universities for learning assembly languages. There are several emulators for this platform, among them MARS made in Java, or the most popular and GPL SPIM licensed. The floating point arithmetic equivalent of MIPS is the flops. Many microprocessors 8 and 16 bits have been measured with KIPS (kiloinstructions per second), which is equal to 0.001 MIPS. The first general-purpose microprocessor, the Intel 8080 ran 640 Kips. The Intel 8086 (16 bit), the first microprocessor used in PC, 800 Kips. The Pentium 4 reaches approximately 1,700 MIPS.

Evolution in the time of the instructions per second

Processor IPS Watch Year
Intel 8080 640 Kips 2 MHz 1974
Intel 8086 800 Kips 4.77 MHz 1974
Motorola 68000 1 MIPS 8 MHz 1979
Intel 486DX 54 MIPS 66 MHz 1992
Intel Pentium 100 MIPS 60 MHz 1993
PowerPC 600s (G2) 35 MIPS 33 MHz 1994
ARM 7500FE 35’9 MIPS 40 MHz nineteen ninety six
PowerPC G3 525 MIPS 233 MHz 1997
ARM10 400 MIPS 300 MHz 1998
Zilog eZ80 80 MIPS 50 MHz 1999
Sony “Allegrex” (from the PSP) 32 MIPS 333MHZ 2002
Pentium 4 Extreme Edition 9,726 MIPS 3.2 GHz 2003
ARM Cortex A8 2,000 MIPS 1 GHz 2005
Xbox360 IBM “Xenon” Single Core 6,400 MIPS 3.2 GHz 2005
AMD Athlon 64 8,400 MIPS 2.8 GHz 2005
AMD Athlon FX-57 12,000 MIPS 2.8 GHz 2005
AMD Athlon 64 Dual Core 18,500 MIPS 2.2 GHz 2005
AMD Athlon 64 3800+ X2 (Dual Core) 18,900 MIPS 2.2 GHz 2005
Overclocked AMD Athlon 64 3800+ X2 (Dual Core) 25,150 MIPS 2.8 GHz 2005
Cell (each PPE) 6,400 MIPS 3.2 GHz 2006
[[Cell | Cell Processor ]] of the PlayStation 3 21,800 MIPS 3.2 GHz 2006
AMD Athlon FX-60 (Dual Core) 22,150 MIPS 2.6 GHz 2006
Overclocked AMD Athlon FX-60 (Dual Core) 24,300 MIPS 2.8 GHz 2006
Overclocked AMD Athlon FX-60 (Dual Core) 27,100 MIPS 3.0 GHz 2006

Cuban Book Institute

Cuban Book Institute (ICL). Governing institution of the edition, the commercialization and the promotion of books and serial publications in Cuba, as well as of the relations of the Cuban State with the writers, their representative organizations and the professionals of the book.

It is part of the Ministry of Culture, whose cultural policy it exercises throughout its branch structure, through permanent dialogue and the active participation of intellectuals in the formulation of its programs and projects, and the opinions received from different audiences on its work.


Founded in 1967 by Law 1203, it groups together the publishing houses that emerged in the process of developing the book in the Revolution, together with the national polygraphy and the book’s distribution and marketing network.
Its history the rise of National Press of Cuba the 31 of March of 1959, after the conflict between workers and employers of the Excelsior and El Pais daily. His first published title was El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha, in four volumes and with a circulation of 400,000 copies, which were sold at the modest price of $ 0.25. This event set the tone for what would become the Cuban publishing system, unprecedented in the history of our country.

In 1962 the National Editorial of Cuba was established, by which the editorial functions of the industry and marketing were separated. The University, Pedagogical, Youth and Political publishing houses emerge as part of this reorganization.

In 1965 Ediciones Revolucionarias crystallized as a special project in response to the extraordinary demand for textbooks and the restrictions imposed on their edition by the Yankee blockade and international agreements on intellectual property.


Its mission is to make available to readers throughout the country the books necessary to satisfy their reading needs and facilitate the creation, publication and national and international promotion of Cuban authors. The production and circulation of books carried out by its entities extends to both universal and Cuban classics as well as national and international contemporary creation and includes all literary, artistic and scientific-technical genres.


It is characterized by the consolidation of a solid and coherent editorial system, the definition of the profiles of the publishers that tend to an adequate thematic balance, the determination of the priorities of the editorial plans based on cultural, political and social interests and the polygraphic capacities that are assigned, the formulation of the lines of perspectives of work in the field of publishing and the national and international promotion of the book.

Main events

Annually organizes the International Book Fair of Havana, the most important event of the Cuban book, and awards the National Awards for Literature and Social Sciences. Eight large and medium-sized publishers and two large distributors are directly subordinate to it.

Import and export books, magazines and other related items. It runs fifteen Book Centers, located in each of the territories, through which it has a Literary Promotion Center and a small publishing house in each province, and bookstores in all the municipalities of the country.

Fundamental institutions that make up the Cuban Book Institute

  • Latin American Literary Agency
  • Cuban Book Chamber
  • National Book Distributor
  • Cuban Editions
  • Editorial Gente Nueva
  • Editorial Letras Cubanas
  • Editorial José Martí
  • Editorial Art and Literature
  • Editorial Nuevo Milenio
  • Cubaliterary
  • Dulce María Loynaz Cultural Center
  • Center for Promotion, Information and Book Analysis
  • Doña Leonor Pérez Cultural Center
  • Commercial services
  • The Letter of the Scribe Magazine
  • Book and Literature Center
  • Services Unit